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Dementia is a collective term used to describe various symptoms of dementia, such as memory loss. It is a symptom of a few basic illnesses and mental disorders.

Dementia is not a single disease in itself, but is a general term to describe symptoms of damage to memory, communication and thinking and growth.
While the likelihood of dementia increases with age, it is not a normal part of aging.

Dementia is a general disorder — a common condition in a chronic or developing condition — with dementia (eg mental retardation) more than expected from normal aging. It affects memory, thinking, posture, comprehension, calculation, reading capacity, language and judgment,customer journey. Touch awareness is not affected. Damage to cognitive function is often associated with brand awareness, and in some cases, deterioration in emotional behavior, social behavior, or motivation.

Dementia is caused by a variety of ailments and neurological or secondary injuries, such as Alzheimer’s disease or stroke.

Dementia is one of the major causes of disability and dependence on the elderly worldwide. It can be difficult, not only for the people who have it, but also for their caregivers and families. There is often a lack of awareness and understanding of dementia, which leads to the inclusion and barriers to diagnosis and care. The impact of dementia on caregivers, the family and society as a whole can be physical, mental, social and economic,linkedin.

Fast facts on dementia 

 

  • there are an estimated 47.5 million dementia sufferers worldwide
  • one new case of dementia is diagnosed every 4 seconds
  • dementia mostly affects older people but is not a normal part of aging
  • Dementia is one of the major causes of disability and dependency among older people worldwide.
  • Dementia has a physical, psychological, social, and economic impact, not only on people with dementia, but also on their carers, families and society at large.

Signs and symptoms

Dementia affects each person in a different way, depending upon the impact of the disease and the person’s personality before becoming ill. The signs and symptoms linked to dementia can be understood in three stages.

Early stage: the early stage of dementia is often overlooked, because the onset is gradual. Common symptoms include:

  • forgetfulness
  • losing track of the time
  • becoming lost in familiar places.

Middle stage: as dementia progresses to the middle stage, the signs and symptoms become clearer and more restricting. These include:

  • becoming forgetful of recent events and people’s names
  • becoming lost at home
  • having increasing difficulty with communication
  • needing help with personal care
  • experiencing behaviour changes, including wandering and repeated questioning.

Late stage: the late stage of dementia is one of near total dependence and inactivity. Memory disturbances are serious and the physical signs and symptoms become more obvious. Symptoms include:

  • becoming unaware of the time and place
  • having difficulty recognizing relatives and friends
  • having an increasing need for assisted self-care
  • having difficulty walking
  • experiencing behaviour changes that may escalate and include aggression.

Common forms of dementia

There are many different forms of dementia. Alzheimer disease is the most common form and may contribute to 60–70% of cases. Other major forms include vascular dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies (abnormal aggregates of protein that develop inside nerve cells), and a group of diseases that contribute to frontotemporal dementia (degeneration of the frontal lobe of the brain). The boundaries between different forms of dementia are indistinct and mixed forms often co-exist.

SOCIAL EXPERIMENT DONE ON DEMENTIA

 

The study data were collected in the Memory Clinic of the Fundaci ó ACEInstitut Catal à de Neuroci è ncies Aplicades, a non-profit organization, influencer and their service area is the city of Barcelona.

In this study, the terms were presented that were used by specialists and the general population with different meanings and nuances.

They used “care” as a purpose rather than a task. Therefore, They consider a caregiver to be the person that takes decisions about the needs of the patient and about how these needs could be met, regardless of whether this person actually carries out the tasks or not. In this study, They have started from the premise that there is no direct relationship between being a caregiver and living with the person with dementia. Hence, in situations where the dementia patient lived with a relative, if this relative did not carry outcare-related tasks (consciously or not), they did not consider the relative as a caregiver. On the other hand, if an assistant was contracted by a relative to take direct care of the patient, we did consider the relative — who took responsibility for managing and deciding on the patient’s care — as a caregiver.

Representations consisted of information, images, beliefs, values, opinions, cultural, and ideological elements that will guide the action, or non-action, of the subjects. Disease representations are based on cognitive rules and regulations that are used to interpret their experience of the disease. These rules are deeply rooted and become tacit. Changes in representations can be a long-term process; hence, they could find discrepancies and conflicting uses of certain terms and concepts.

“Impact” is a concept that they used to value the emotional and social consequences of care giving, such as disturbance in family relationships, and in occupational, leisure, and economic activities.

They used the concept of “role restructuring/reorganization” for the delegating of responsibilities and functions to another person as a consequence of cognitive impairment of dementia, which provokes a decreasing ability of the subject to perform functions and take on responsibilities.

Characterization of the relevant variables in the study

 

Variables analyzed in this study were divided into three blocks and are as follows:

  1. a) Sociodemographic variables of the patient: age, sex, education, marital status, the person or people they live with, occupation, etc.
  2. b) Diagnosis: etiological diagnosis, degree of cognitive and physical autonomy (according to the scores in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) [25], Blessed Dementia Rating Scale [26], Rapid Disability Rating Scale-2 [27] and Global Deterioration Scale (GDS) [28]).
  3. c) Interpretations on the cognitive impairment: Knowledge about dementia, how the impairer’s situation is understood, on-setting of therapeutic pathway.
  4. d) Features/particularities/details of the care structure: existence of a caregiver, caregiver’s gender, family relationship with the subject, way in which the role of caregiver was assumed, caregiver activity and impact on caregiver’s life expectations care strategies, people without caregiver and their reality, existence of risk.

 

Data analysis

 

A descriptive analysis of the variables was performed using frequency analysis and measures of central tendency and dispersion for quantitative variables. Results were expressed as absolute numbers, percentages, mean and standard deviation.

Data processing and analysis were conducted using SPSS statistical software v. 19.0, Chi-square test was used to compare the variables. Alpha level was set at 0.05.

Qualitative data from clinical records were checked. These data were codified into category labels, and were then ordered into groups. Data were analyzed and compared; first within each category, and then between categories. The goal was to find links between them. To do such analysis, latent contents and context were taken into account.

The statement of the informants has been transcribed verbatim. These transcriptions have been filed separately from the text and in quotation marks.

Dementia vs. Alzheimer’s

 

Dementia and Alzheimer’s disease aren’t the same. Dementia is an overall term used to describe symptoms that impact memory, performance of daily activities, and communication abilities. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common type of dementia. Alzheimer’s disease gets worse with time and affects memory, language, and thought.

While younger people can develop dementia or Alzheimer’s disease, your risk increases as you age. Still, neither is considered a normal part of aging.

Although symptoms of the two conditions may overlap, distinguishing them is important for management and treatment.